EL, ELOAH: God “mighty, strong, prominent” (Gen. 7:1; Isa. 9:6) – Etymologically, El appears to mean power, as in “I have the power to harm you” (Gen. 31:29). El is associated with other qualities, such as integrity (Num. 23:19), jealousy (Deut. 5:9), and compassion (Neh. 9:31), but the root idea of might remains.
ELOHIM: God “Creator, Mighty and Strong” (Gen. 17:7; Jer. 31:33) – The plural form of Eloah, which is accommodating of the doctrine of the Trinity. From the Bible’s first sentence, the superlative nature of God’s power is evident as God (Elohim) speaks the world into existence (Gen. 1:1).
EL SHADDAI: “God Almighty,” “The Mighty One of Jacob” (Gen. 49:24; Psa. 132:2,5) – Speaks to God’s ultimate power over all.
ADONAI: “Lord” (Gen. 15:2; Judg. 6:15) – Used in place of YHWH, which was thought by the Jews to be too sacred to be uttered by sinful men. In the Old Testament, YHWH is more often used in God’s dealings with His people, while Adonai is used more when He deals with the Gentiles.
YHWH / YAHWEH / JEHOVAH: “LORD” (Deut. 6:4; Dan. 9:14) – Strictly speaking, the only proper name for God. Translated in English Bibles “LORD” (all capitals) to distinguish it from Adonai “Lord.” The revelation of the name is first given to Moses “I Am who I Am” (Exo. 3:14). This name specifies an immediacy, a presence. Yahweh is present, accessible, near to those who call on Him for deliverance (Psa. 107:13), forgiveness (Psa. 25:11) and guidance (Psa. 31:3).
YAHWEH-JIREH: “The Lord will Provide” (Gen. 22:14) – The name memorialized by Abraham when God provided the ram to be sacrificed in place of Isaac.
YAHWEH-RAPHA: “The Lord Who Heals” (Exo. 15:26) – “I am Jehovah who heals you” both in body and soul. In body, by preserving from diseases, and by curing them when afflicted with them and in soul, by pardoning their iniquities.
YAHWEH-NISSI: “The Lord Our Banner” (Exo. 17:15), where banner is understood to be a rallying place. This name commemorates the desert victory over the Amalekites in Exodus 17.
YAHWEH-M’KADDESH: “The Lord Who Sanctifies, Makes Holy” (Lev. 20:8; Eze. 37:28) – God makes it clear that He alone, not the law, could cleanse His people and make them holy.
YAHWEH-SHALOM: “The Lord Our Peace” (Judg. 6:24) – The name given by Gideon to the altar he built after the Angel of the Lord assured him he would not die as he thought he would after seeing Him.
YAHWEH-ELOHIM: “LORD God” (Gen. 2:4; Psa. 59:5) – Combination of God’s unique name YHWH and the generic “Lord,” signifying that He is the Lord of Lords.
YAHWEH-TSIDKENU: “The Lord Our Righteousness” (Jer. 33:16) – As with YHWH-M’Kaddesh, it is God alone who provides righteousness to man, ultimately in the person of His Son, Jesus Christ, who became sin for us “that we might become the Righteousness of God in Him” (2Cor. 5:21).
YAHWEH-ROHI: “The Lord Our Shepherd” (Psa. 23:1) – After David pondered his relationship as a shepherd to his sheep, he realized that was exactly the relationship God had with him, and so he declares “Yahweh-Rohi is my Shepherd. I shall not want” (Psa. 23:1).
YAHWEH-SHAMMAH: “The Lord is There” (Eze. 48:35) – The name ascribed to Jerusalem and the Temple there, indicating that the once departed glory of the Lord (Eze. 8-11) had returned (Eze. 44:1-4).
YAHWEH-SABAOTH: “The Lord of Hosts” (Isa. 1:24; Psa. 46:7) – “Hosts” means hordes, both of angels and of men. He is Lord of the host of heaven, and of the inhabitants of the earth, of Jews and Gentiles, of rich and poor, master and slave. The name is expressive of the majesty, power, and authority of God and shows that he is able to accomplish what he determines to do.
EL ELYON: “Most High” (Deut. 26:19) – Derived from the Hebrew root for “go up” or “ascend,” so the implication is of that which is the very highest. El Elyon denotes exaltation and speaks of absolute right to Lordship.
EL ROI: “God of Seeing” (Gen. 16:13) – The name ascribed to God by Hagar, alone and desperate in the wilderness after being driven out by Sarah (Gen. 16:1-14), when she met the Angel of the Lord and realized she had seen God Himself in a theophany. She realized that El Roi saw her in her distress and testified that He is a God who lives and sees all.
EL-OLAM: “Everlasting God” (Psa. 90:1-3) – God’s nature is without beginning or end, free from all constraints of time and contains within Himself the very cause of time itself. “From everlasting to everlasting, You are God.”
EL-GIBHOR: “Mighty God” (Isa. 9:6) – The name describing the Messiah, Christ Jesus, in this prophetic portion of Isaiah. As a powerful and mighty warrior, the Messiah, the Mighty God, will accomplish the destruction of God’s enemies and rule with a rod of iron (Rev. 19:15).
• El Shaddai – Lord God Almighty (Gen. 17:1)
• El Elyon – the Lord most high (Psa. 7:17, 47:2, 97:9)
• Adonai – the Lord our Sovereign; Master Jehovah (Gen. 15:2, 8)
• Yahweh – Lord, Jehovah(Deut. 6:4; Dan. 9:14)
• Jehovah-Nissi – the Lord our banner (Exo. 17:15)
• Jehovah-Raah – The Lord My Shepherd (Psa. 23:1)
• Jehovah-Rapha – the Lord our healer (Exo. 15:26)
• Jehovah-Shammah – the Lord is present (Eze. 48:35)
• Jehovah-Tsidkeenu – the Lord our righteousness (Jer. 23:6; 33:16).
• Jehovah-Mekaddishkem – the Lord our sanctifier (Exo. 31:13; Lev. 20:8; 21:8; 22:9, 16, 32; Eze. 20:12)
• El Olam – The Everlasting God (Psa. 90:1-3)
• Elohim – God, the Eternal Creator (Gen. 2:4-25).
• Qanna – Jealous (Exo. 20:5)
• Jehovah-Jireh – the Lord will see or provide (Gen. 22:8-14)
• Jehovah-Shalom – the Lord our peace (Judg. 6:24)
• Jehovah-Sabaoth – the Lord of hosts (1Sam. 1:3; etc. 281 times).
• Jehovah-Elyon – the Lord most high (Psa. 7:17, 47:2, 97:9)
MGM Ministries-Article Source: Unknown – (taken in September 2010)